Many types of milk are consumed though mostly it is cow’s milk, goat’s milk and sheep’s milk. Milk needs to be pasteurized for safe consumption.
So the it is important to know various kinds of milk used in cooking and especially in pastry the type of milk play very important role in kitchen.
Let us discuss different types of milk
Types of Milk
Whole milk –
It can be cow’s milk or milk from buffalo, sheep or ever goat. This milk contains at least 3.5% of butterfat which gives it that wholesome taste.
Soy milk –
Soy milk is a stable emulsion of oil, water and protein from the soybean. It does not contain any milk protein.
One important point about soy milk, It does not naturally contain Calcium so it must be fortified. The label must indicate all vitamins and minerals that are added.
Homogenized milk –
It is the whole and pasteurized milk. The milk treated with mechanically so their is a no separation of fat from the milk.
This is the best milk to use for tea and coffee as the fat does not separate and float on top.
Skimmed milk –
The fat from the whole milk is removed by a centrifugal force.
Vitamin A and D must be added in skimmed milk. It also called non fat milk or fat free milk.
Condensed milk –
This is reduced milk in which sugar and stabilizers have been added to produced a thick and viscous creamy liquid.
Condensed milk use various products like in cakes, various recipies and in baked products.
Butter Milk –
It is the by-product obtained while making butter. Today buttermilk is made from pasteurized milk with an addition of lactic acid bacteria.
This milk is use for making sorbet, icecream and in recipes.
Dehydrated milk –
This is whole milk from which the water is removed by either spray drying or by roll drying processes.
The milk powder is used in breads or cookie doughs to provide enrichment.
Dried milk solids –
In Hindi it is also known as khoya and it is the extensively used in Indian desserts.
This is obtained by cooking the milk over a slow heat till most of the liquid evaporates and remaining solid mass is sold off as milk solid.
Types of dairy in cooking
Single Cream –
It contains not less than 18% butterfat. It can not be whipped due to their containing too little butterfat. This cream is also known as cooking cream and it is commonly used in kitchen for making sauces. An also making dressing.
Double cream –
This cream contains not less than 45% butterfat. It is can be whipped but not too much as it will turn to butter.
It is use for enrich to sauces.
Whipping cream –
This cream contains not less than 38% butterfat. It is perfect for whipping as its name indicates. As name suggests it is perfect for whipping. After whipping you find a difference in texture and a change in volume.
Clotted cream –
This cream contains not less than 55% butterfat. It is already very thick so it can be used as it is and not whipped.
This cream is served along with afternoon cookies called scones.
Sour cream –
These are single Cream that contains about 20% butterfat but have a souring culture in them and they are matured in the same process as for setting curds.
This cream can be shaped into Quenelles and served with soups or salads. It can also be served as sauce in itself.
Acidulated cream –
This is cooking cream with addition of lime juice to make it sour. This cream is used for making dressing of Salads.
Hung curd –
It is used for marination of kebabs. It can be tempered to make curd curry also known as chonka dahi.
Hung yoghurt can be used for making creamy raitas.
Plain curd –
The curd culture is added to tepid milk and allowed to rest for six to eight hours to set into curds.
The curd gravies are to be made only in tinned brass utensils as they tend to curdle in steel or aluminum utensils.